Thursday, March 2, 2017

When Chester Gould Ruled!

The memory is distinct yet indistinct, in a way memories often are. I was four, maybe five years old, in the apartment of a relative or friend of the family that my parents were visiting. The Sunday News comics section was laying on a table and caught my attention; the stylized drawings glowed colorfully and hypnotically. I don't know why that moment holds sway over so many others. It certainly wasn't my first encounter with Dick Tracy, since the New York Daily News was a staple in my household - my older brother John would often be sent out by my father to buy the paper, and if it was sold out at Angelo's (our closest candy store) he would have to venture from store to store until he found a copy. 

I was always fascinated by comics, both books and strips. The images drew me into their world. I poured through the funnies every Sunday, paying particular attention to Little Orphan Annie and Dondi, but Dick Tracy, who held court on the front page each week, was especially captivating. Tracy was probably one of the first comic strips I WANTED to read (and one of the first drawings I tried to copy). 

That Sunday page, vaguely remembered through the fog of long gone days, is (almost certainly) one that took place on the moon, a period of time in Chester Gould's strip that is reviled by many fans, but, as Max Allan Collins notes in his essay in The Complete Dick Tracy, Volume 21:

"And for every grown-up kid who'd been aboard since the '30s or '40s and bitched about this change of direction, there was an actual kid for whom the space-age Tracy was the only one he or she knew...and many of them loved it."

I was one of those kids.

Gould's use of body language is skillfully employed in this panel from December 29, 1963. Tracy's slouched figure likely echoes the reaction of a section of long time fans when reading this panel!   

In actuality the 'Moon Phase" made perfect sense. The space race between Russia and the US was in the headlines (when are they NOT!); the early 1960s included accounts of spacecrafts occupied by chimpanzees, the first astronaut in space (Alan Sheppard, May 5, 1961) and on February 20, 1962, John Glenn orbited the earth. President John F. Kennedy vowed that by the end of the decade the US would land a man on the moon. Gould, always on top of current events and ahead of the latest technology had to top that!   

Was THIS the Sunday page that captured my attention way back on August 6, 1964? I can't say for sure but it's entirely possible.  

  The Dick Tracy Show originally ran from 1961-62 and was syndicated for many years afterward. 

By 1964 Chester Gould's famous detective had been in the papers for thirty three years. The wildly popular strip became a merchandising phenomenon early on, which translated into a plethora of tie-ins, including  toys, games and dolls. Dick Tracy also made the jump to radio, two movie serials and a TV show. In 1961 a cartoon was created, aimed specifically for the kiddie set. Produced by UPA, it opened with Tracy dispatching an array of comedic crime-fighters to confront toned-down versions of Tracy's rogues gallery. Distinguished character actor Everett Sloane supplied Tracy's voice; his credits include working alongside Orson Wells in the famous Mercury Theater radio dramas (an aside for the trivia-minded and comic fans, Sloan had a recurring part as the cab driver Shreve on The Shadow radio show), a part in Citizen Kane and countless movie and TV roles, including an outstanding performance in Rod Serling's teleplay Patterns and The Twilight Zone. Dick Tracy was hosted in the New York area by "Officer Joe" Bolton on WPIX-TV, Channel 11. 

In the early 1960s many children sat by their TV sets, mesmerized by the antics of  a cadre of beloved kid show hosts. New York's WPIX-Channel 11 included Captain Jack McCarthy, Chuck McCann, "Officer Joe" Bolton and Bozo the Clown (Bill Britton). 

  Chuck McCann portraying Dick Tracy. Note Chester Gould's signature prominently displayed. 

When a strike shut down most New York newspapers in late 1962, including The Daily News, children's host Chuck McCann came up with the idea of reading the most popular strips (Dick Tracy, Little Orphan Annie, Dondi, Terry and the Pirates) on his "Let's Have Fun" Sunday program, keeping viewers up to date on their adventures. McCann was inspired by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, who read the funnies on radio station WNYC in 1945 during a strike by newspaper delivery drivers, but since television is a visual medium Chuck went one step further and dressed as the characters! 

                                            Sunday page from June 18, 1938.

Dick Tracy has a long history, beginning on October 1, 1931. Chester Gould's strip tapped into the public's fascination with the underworld and wiseguys like Al Capone, who were headlining stories in newspapers throughout the country. The strength of the feature was predicated on several factors, including a heroic lead character, attention to police procedures (Gould utilized a consultant from the force in order to maintain a degree of authenticity) and episodic adventures. It was these very elements that enabled Gould and the daily saga to reach a wide-ranging audience.    

Gould's playful illustration of Tracy being ambushed by his many foes was drawn for Life magazine, appearing in the August 14, 1944 issue. 

              The Mole was another gruesome Tracy villain. Panel from November 21, 1941.

Gould's rogues gallery included grotesque criminals such as The Brow, Flattop, BB Eyes, Mumbles and Pruneface, to name just a few. For decades Gould came up with fresh antagonists to oppose his creation, rarely taking the easy way out (he killed off many of his famous foes), an amazing accomplishment in itself. Both Dick Tracy and the villains Gould created inspired a horde of similar comic strips, including Radio Patrol, Secret Agent X-9, Red Barry, Kerry Drake. The comic book field also took notice. From its first issue in 1937 one of Detective Comics ongoing features was Slam Bradley, created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the duo that would bring Superman to life; two years later Bill Finger and Bob Kane produced a new character for Detective: Batman. They, along with others such as Jerry Robinson, followed Gould's template with weird protagonists such as the Penguin and The Joker.

A daily strip from November 20, 1950. Somber scenes of cast members praying for the life of a loved one occurred throughout Gould's run. The cartoonist wove a rich tapestry of comedy, tragedy and melodrama in many of his best story lines.

                                                              July 6, 1952.

                                                         October 26, 1952.
Examples of two 1950's Dick Tracy Sunday pages. Many fans contend that Gould was at his  creative zenith in this period. Exceptional pacing, stylized drawing, bizarre hoodlums and gritty gun-play are some of the reasons to justify their claims.

                                                      January 5, 1945.

                                                     November 27, 1947.
                                 Panels from the February 2, 1941 Sunday page
                                                            December 2, 1941.
Sequence from February 27-29, 1964.

The uncontrollable forces of nature often threatened Dick Tracy, his friends and his foes; sometimes fatally. Gould played with the elements like a virtuoso: scenes of raging fires, torrential storms, horrendous floods and, most spectacularly, the power and beauty of snow. No one depicted these scenes as vividly as Gould.     

 Even after 38 years on the job Gould could still up the ante and infuse his pages with bold, shadowy, almost surreal imagery. June 15, 1969.    

Chester Gould retired from his creation in 1977 after producing Dick Tracy seven days a week for 45 years. His distinctive, immediately recognizable artwork transfixed me much like Steve Ditko's did in comic books. Not surprising in retrospect, since both creators are unique, quirky and true craftsman. There were certainly times Gould faltered; producing a weak story or villain and forced humor, but his RBIs* are in the stratosphere. Chester Gould invested his characters with warmth, humor and personality. His stories dealt with technology, humanity, brutality, sincerity and absurdity. His work lives on in sequential hardcover reprint collections for fans to pore over and future generations to enjoy. All these years later I still find his work endlessly fascinating.  

To learn more about Chester Gould and his creations go to the Dick Tracy Museum: 
Gould contributed this drawing to the 1976 San Diego Comic-Con program book.  

* Runs Batted In, for those who don't know Baseball terminology. 

Wednesday, January 25, 2017

Appreciating Don Heck

My introduction to Don Heck’s art began in the mid-1960s, when he was associated primarily with Marvel Comics' super-heroes, including "Iron Man," "Ant-Man" and The Avengers. Reprints in Fantasy Masterpieces educated me on Heck's stylish monster/science-fiction short stories, that while only six or seven years old, seemed like a discovery from an ancient age. As my collecting interests grew, I became aware of his facility in an array of genres, including romance, war and westerns. Through fanzines and interviews I learned of his beginnings, both the high-points and pitfalls of toiling in the comic book field. Heck struggled at times to maintain his identity, and in later years didn't often get the choice assignments, passed over for younger, more popular artists, but his contributions to the field deserve recognition.      

Don Heck’s earliest work appeared in 1952 at Comic Media. He contributed across the line in Weird Terror, War Fury, Horrific, All True Romance, Death Valley and Danger, where he illustrated his first feature, "Duke Douglas," a spy series that appeared in issues 7-11. Heck had a strong, clean line, inspired by master cartoonist Milton Caniff, revered in the field for his work on the Newspaper strip Terry and the Pirates. Heck created simple, striking covers and interior art for the company. 

While Heck's early efforts were stiff in spots, he was clearly growing as a sequential storyteller. This story shows a Jack Davis influence. "Full Moon," Weird Terror # 5, May 1953.  Image from Comic Book Plus:   

Death Valley # 2, December 1953. Image from Comic Book Plus:

 Weird Terror # 11, May 1954. Cover from Comic Book Plus:

Danger # 11, August 1954.
Heck's impressive cover art for Comic Media showcased a strong eye for composition, as the above examples demonstrate.  

Along with Comic Media, Heck also worked for Harvey, Toby Press and this one-shot published by US Pictoral in 1955, Captain Gallant of the Foreign Legion, adapted from the 1955-57 syndicated TV series starring Buster Crabbe. Heck's skillful storytelling displays an obvious Milton Caniff influence.    

In late 1954 Heck began a long association with Stan Lee's Atlas line, which would later become known as Marvel. Lee obviously took note of the artist's versatility and kept Heck busy on a variety of genres: western, war, horror, crime, romance, jungle tales – you name it – all produced with a level of pure craft. Heck worked on continuing characters in Navy Action ("Torpedo Taylor") and Jann of the Jungle ("Cliff Mason"). Heck’s war stories were particularly strong; his visual dynamics came through in these tales of heroic adventure. 

A beautifully composed page from "Torpedo" Taylor". "Get that Sub!", Navy Combat # 10, December 1956.

Although Heck wasn’t assigned any of Lee's feature characters (The Kid from Dodge City ran for just two issues before it was cancelled) his five page fillers appeared regularly in titles including Gunsmoke Western, Kid Colt Outlaw, Wyatt Earp and Two Gun Western. While not as detailed or authentic as John Severin's art in the genre, Heck's cowboy epics showcased an artist whose confidence came through on the printed page. 

 Heck's sketchy line was perfectly suited to the gritty atmosphere that exemplified western fare. His characters, clothing and settings echoed (and no doubt were inspired by) western films. "The Day of the Gun Duel!," Gunsmoke Western # 41, June 1957.   

Heck excelled on the one-shot title Police Badge # 479 (September 1955). Heck drew two stories featuring a rookie cop, sinking his teeth into an exciting strip that featured dynamic layouts, attractive pencils and atmospheric inks.

Heck's dramatic splash page to "Night Rain",  Police Badge # 479, September 1955.

Heck could switch gears easily, showing an eye for fashion, design and attractive women in titles such as Love Romances, My Own Romance and Teen-Age Romance. Heck enjoyed working on fantasy and space opera, contributing to Mystic, Strange Worlds, Journey into Mystery, World of Fantasy, Strange Tales, Tales of Suspense and Tales to Astonish.

 Heck gives the protagonist a mixture of beauty and vulnerability. "Incident in the Rain!," Love Romances # 102, November 1962. Heck: "I couldn't draw girls at all in the beginning - that was my worst feature, and me a fan of Caniff's! I decided i'd better start learning."  

Heck designed interesting space effects in stories such as “Rocket Ship X” (Strange Tales # 69, June 1959). The splash page emphasizes a sharp eye for spotting blacks.

Two pages that highlight Heck's cinematic eye, character types and expressive mood, highlighted by the coloring of Stan Goldberg. Page 3 and 4 of "Something Lurks in the Fog!", Tales of Suspense # 24, Dec 1961.  

While continuing to draw fantasy, western and romance stories in 1962, Stan Lee put Heck to work on his first super-hero feature. Jack Kirby couldn’t realistically draw every book, and although he created the initial design of Iron Man (used as the cover of Tales of Suspense # 39, March 1963), Heck penciled the debut story and designed the character of Tony Stark (modeled on actor Errol Flynn). Heck's flair for character types brought supporting characters Happy Hogan (a stoic chap whose appearance may have been influenced by comedian Buster Keaton) and Pepper Potts (who Heck noted was visually based on actress Ann B. Davis) to life.

Heck’s art on Iron Man's early stories was particularly effective. Favorites include “The Mad Pharaoh” (Tales of Suspense # 44) where his line showed a distinct Alex Toth influence; a two part Mandarin story (Suspense #’s 54 & 55) featuring a striking splash page of Iron Man hovering above the streets (this issue included a special feature:  “All about Iron Man,” where Heck's inking was particularly crisp); and the introduction of the Unicorn (Suspense # 56), an attractively designed villain. All of Heck's penciled and inked Iron Man stories are worth seeking out - they showcase some of his very best work in the super hero genre.

In his Comics Feature interview Heck noted: 

 "..I was more or less inspired in some cases by stuff I had seen that Alex Toth was doing, and so I was having fun with it, and I saw Toth was working with a Rapid-O-Graph [a technical pen], and I did an Egyptian story with all of these characters, and it was the first time I used a Rapid-O-Graph."  

"The Mad Pharaoh!" (Tales of Suspense # 44, August 1963) was the impressive result. 

Iron Man weightlessly floats above the Manhattan crowds; one of Heck's most accomplished pages of the period. Tales of Suspense # 54, June 1964.

When Stan Lee gave Heck an additional title to draw in mid-1964 (taking over the reigns from Jack Kirby on The Avengers with # 9, cover-dated October) he had to relinquish inking for the first time in his career. Dick Ayers, Chic Stone and Mike Esposito filled that position, and while they were all talented craftsman, the results often diluted Heck's pencils. Heck remarked on inking in his interview in Comics Scene # 21, November 1982 (conducted by Richard Howell):  

"I would much rather finish my own work. Obviously, if I do that, I’m not going to do as many pages per month, as far as that goes, but I like to get into the characters. I like to work with the whole feeling of the story. And I think you--I do, anyway--draw better if you do the whole drawing."   

Upon his return to Marvel, John Romita's first job was inking Don Heck's pencils on The Avengers. Heck had assisted Romita on a few romance jobs at DC, and both were noted for their attractive women. The Avengers # 23, December 1965. 

While Heck's art was not as inventive or intensely powerful as Jack Kirby's (few artists were) he had an appealing style, and his run on The Avengers is noteworthy. Although Heck didn't particularly enjoy working on a team book (or superheroes, for that matter), the stories he drew focused on a core group consisting of Captain America, Hawkeye, Quicksilver and the Scarlet Witch (the latter two replaced for a time by Goliath and the Wasp), allowing him the ability to focus on characterization and human drama in lieu of the typical congregation of heroes and villains.

Concurrent with his mid-1960s Marvel work Heck freelanced for Western Publishing/Gold Key on an array of popular TV adaptations: The Man from UncleVoyage to the Bottom of the Sea; Twilight Zone and Boris Karloff Tales of Mystery. "The Ten Little UNCLEs Affair," The Man From U.N.C.L.E. # 5, March 1966. Mike Peppe inks. 

After Heck was taken off his assignment on The Avengers he roamed around Marvel's line as a utility player, laying out stories for Werner Roth on X-Men and finishing John Romita’s breakdowns on Amazing Spider-Man (often completed by Mike Esposito on inks). While serviceable, this piecemeal approach deprived Heck of his individual qualities. Heck returned to full pencils on Captain Marvel, Captain Savage and anthology stories in Tower of Shadows, Chamber of Darkness, Our Love Story and My Love. Heck's best work in this period was undoubtedly his non-superhero stories, a genre that he flourished in during the 1950s, when he was not inclined (or prodded) to emulate Jack Kirby's Wagnerian visuals.  

In the mid-late 1960s Heck rarely was given the opportunity to ink his own pencils and his work suffered accordingly. On occasion he was paired with a compatible inker, such as veteran artist Syd Shores. "The Junk-Heap Juggernauts!", Captain Savage and his Leatherneck Raiders # 13, April 1969.   

Master craftsman John Buscema was a friend and admirer of Heck's art. They were only paired together a handful of times, but Heck's delineation on this page is indicative of his sharp, rich style. "A Time to Die!", Tower of Shadows # 1, September 1969.  

When Marvel returned to the romance genre in 1969 after a five year absence with the debut of My Love and Our Love Story (Love Romances was cancelled in 1963), it was only natural for Don Heck, who was noted for illustrating stunning women, to contribute his artistic skills to both comics. This splash teams him with another noted romance artist, John Romita. "Why Did I lose You, My Love?", Heck pencils; John Romita inks, Our Love Story # 1, October 1969.    

In addition to their new romance titles, Marvel initiated two fantasy/mystery comics, Tower of Shadows and Chamber of Darkness, where Heck was again put to good use. Heck composed a page with an instinctive understanding of where the "camera" should be placed. This is a rare instance of Heck inking his own pencils in this period. "Evil is A Baaaad Scene!!", Tower of Shadows # 4, March 1970.  

In the early 1970s Heck switched allegiances and moved to DC, where his skills were better utilized. There he was often assigned strips starring female protagonists. In addition to superhero/adventure series/titles Wonder Woman, "Batgirl" and "Rose and the Thorn," he worked on numerous romance and mystery stories. Heck's work flourished in extra-length Gothic thrillers The Dark Mansion of Forbidden Love/Forbidden Tales of Dark Mansion and Sinister House of Secret Love

Heck's eye for contemporary fashions and beautiful women combined to produce many exceptional covers for DC's romance line. Girls' Romances # 156, April, 1971. Dick Giordano inks.  

When given the opportunity to draw more realistic scenes and settings Heck stretched his muscles. This atmospheric page includes an impressive point of view shot in panel five.  "Kiss of Death," The Dark Mansion of Forbidden Love # 3, February 1972, Heck pencils and inks. 

Heck's clean storytelling and fluid inks enliven this "Batgirl" page. "The Deadly Go-Between!," Detective Comics # 416, October 1971. Heck pencils and inks. 

Back at Marvel in the mid-1970s Heck penciled a few superior jobs, including stories for Giant-Size Dracula and Giant-Size Defenders. As the decade wore on, though, both Heck's assignments and inkers were wanting, and his work fell out of favor. Heck was often the guy editors summoned when deadlines loomed; assured that he would get the work done on time. Being a professional he always came through, but the finished product was usually not on the level fans expected, and he - not the editors - would get the blame. 

Author Steve Gerber praised Heck for his storytelling on "Too Cold A Night for Dying!" in Giant-Size Defenders # 3. Vince Colletta inks. 

Disappointed with the treatment he received at Marvel Heck returned to DC in 1977, remaining with the company until 1988. There he had runs on Wonder Woman, The Flash, Steel, the Indestructible Man and Justice League of America. Some of the DC editors were more accommodating to Heck, either providing sympathetic inkers or granting him the chance to do the complete job. The results were usually superior. 

Western and Superhero genres meet in this nicely composed page featuring Green Lantern and Jonah Hex, from Justice League of America # 199, February 1982. Brett Breeding provides the sturdy inks.  

Like most comic book artists Don Heck was probably an enthusiastic moviegoer who studied cinematic techniques. While fans got a kick out of seeing Heck's versions of Jimmy Olsen, Adam Strange, Deadman, Blackhawk and Woozy Winks, Heck himself might have been more enthused over drawing stars Spencer Tracy, Edward G. Robertson, Charlie Chaplin, Gary Cooper and Harpo Marx! "All This and World War, Too!" Roy Thomas script; Heck pencils and inks. DC Challenge # 9 July 1986.   

In addition to his DC efforts, Heck's art appeared in other venues from time to time. including the magazine anthology Adventure Illustrated (# 1, Winter 1981). Heck drew three illustrations to accompany  a chapter from Owen Wister's 1902 western novel "The Virginian." The artist's exuberance for the material is echoed in his delightfully fluid technique.  

Heck returned to Marvel for the final time in 1989 when work dried up at DC. He penciled, inked or provided finished art on Avengers Spotlight, Marvel Comics Presents, Thor and various features. Heck also worked for a few independent publishers including Topps Comics. Don Heck passed away on February 23, 1995, at the age of 66.

One of Heck's last jobs was drawing a Jack Kirby designed character, Nightglider, for Topps comics. "She Glides in Beauty Like the Night...," Nightglider # 1, April 1993. 

 Don Heck has been described by his peers as an amiable, hard working, no nonsense guy; a visual and verbal mix of Leo Gorcey and Art Carney, equipped with a great sense of humor. A self-effacing man, Heck was not afraid to speak his mind when prodded (typical of his working class upbringing in the streets of Jamacia, Queens). 

In a career spanning more than 40 years Don Heck produced a body of work that is worthy of appreciation. Unjustly and often cruelly denounced by the fan press in his later years, Heck was deeply wounded by these assaults, but he bravely weathered the storm and was determined to continue perfecting his skills, as this exchange with Will Murray illustrates:

Murray: So you maintain your edge by drawing, no matter what.

Heck: I draw all the time, yeah. I've got a whole bunch of pages where you're just drawing figures there, [working] with that, trying different things that you're working with. 

In retrospect, Heck deserves recognition as a distinctive artist who performed his greatest work in genres other than superheroes. While often overlooked in the past, many of his stories are being preserved in attractive hardcover editions such as Marvel Masterworks. Online, a large portion of his stunning early efforts for Comic Media are available to read at Comic Book Plus, and fans can discuss, share and study Heck's efforts on Facebook. In looking over his body of work many comics scholars and aficionados are reassessing the quality of an artist who, working in the shadow of Jack Kirby, was often overlooked. Removed from that shadow a talented craftsman comes to light.

This is a revised, updated and greatly expanded version of an article that originally appeared in Alter Ego # 42. 

Don Heck; A Work of Art by John Coates is an essential look at the artist's work and was an invaluable resource tool in reworking this article. It can be purchased from TwoMorrows or at Amazon:

To see a fine selection of Heck's Comic Media work (and view full issues of comic books in the public domain) go here:

To share your thoughts and art on Don Heck join the Don Heck Appreciation Page

Wednesday, December 14, 2016

Richard Kyle's Graphic Story World

The name Richard Kyle casts a long shadow over comic book fandom. His first article was published in Richard Lupoff's Xero # 8 (April 1962), "The Education of Victor Fox", and it was a far-cry from the often-gushing pieces many teens fashioned when writing about their favorite characters or comics. Kyle's twenty two page examination of Fox comics took a hard look at the publisher's lowest common denominator output, claiming his business practices stained the entire industry. Kyle's writing displayed a level of craft and critical thinking that raised the bar considerably for others to follow. Kyle continued to write articles, essays and reviews for fanzines, notably Bill Spicer's Fantasy Illustrated/Graphic Story Magazine, but in 1971 he crafted his own publication, one that aspired to cover the field of comics in all its permutations.

Kyle's statement of purpose appeared on the cover heading to the first issue of Graphic Story World. His fanzine offered a potpourri of comics related news and articles from the very start; a stark contrast from the majority of publications that focused almost entirely on superheroes and the current Marvel and DC offerings. 

Kyle's twelve page newsletter packed a lot into its first issue. Along with news from the mainstream comic book publishers, with particular emphasis on Jack Kirby's current DC endeavors, Kyle included information on the latest conventions, fanzines, undergrounds (which were unencumbered by Comics Code restrictions since they were not sold through traditional outlets), foreign publications, animation and a column on Gil Kane's Blackmark illustrated novel by noted interviewer and author John Benson.  

Kyle's editorial on the back page emphasizes his interest in comics as an international art form. From the start Kyle saw the medium's unlimited potential. As early as 1963 he came up with the phrase "graphic story" and "graphic novel" as a means of expressing a larger canvas. It would take a decade or two, but his expression was eventually adopted into the language of comic book fans and publishers. Today authors writing articles about the business employ the terminology and bookstores often have a "graphic novel" section.     

Graphic Story World # 3, October 1971, Jim Jones cover art. With it's third issue Kyle expanded GSM from twelve to sixteen pages. In his editorial he explained "There's just too much happening in the graphic story world to be covered adequately by a twelve page magazine." Those extra pages were filled by a new column, Graphic Story Review, focusing on a variety of comic related books commented on by a host of authors, including Kyle, and an article by Fred Patten on the french humor strip, "Asterisk."     

Yesteryear: Whatever Happened to..?, authored by Hames Ware, originally began as a small column in the first issue. A particular favorite, Ware tracked down many largely forgotten artists of the golden age era, updating fans on their current activities (many had left the business). Ware had the distinct ability to identify artist's styles and was instrumental in giving them recognition and credit. Ware co-edited Jerry Bails' invaluable Who's Who in American Comic Books, now available as an online resource:     

GSW # 4 (December 1971) was the last issue to be labeled a newsletter. In just two months Kyle added an additional ten pages. Clearly, he needed more room to cover all his interests in the world of comics. This issue introduced a new column on comic strips by Shel Dorf and expanded its international, news and review sections.      

Issue # 5 of Graphic Story World (February 1972) included a new sub-heading, "The MAGAZINE of the Graphic Arts" (my emphasis). On slicker paper and clocking in at a whopping forty pages there was something to please all tastes in the comic art community. Some of the features included a look at Bill Everett's Sub-Mariner; French artist Jean Giraud (aka "Moebius"); John Benson's interview with artist Roger Brand. In addition Kyle devoted more space to ongoing columns, including Hames Ware's Whatever Happened to?, which added a section on artists who had died and those recently discovered.    

Graphic Story World # 6 (July 1972), was eight pages shorter than the previous issue, but didn't lack for content. In addition to the regular columns, artist Dan Spiegle was interviewed. A distinguished craftsman, Spiegle's comic book work for Dell/Western's TV/Movie related titles didn't get much coverage in the fan press. In the "Round Table" letters section artist Fred Guardineer, who had been the focus of an earlier article by Hames Ware, updated fans on his present activities. On a personal note, many years later the name Fred Guardineer came up in a conversation with my Uncle Joe. Aware of my interest in comics, one day he mentioned that a guy he worked with in the Babylon, Long Island branch of the post office used to draw comics. His name: Fred Guardineer. Sometimes it IS a small world. 

Graphic Story World # 7, (September 1972). Norman Mingo, widely known as the artist of countless Mad magazine covers, painted his version of the Owl, a character created by writer Jerry De Fuccio and artist Mart Bailey. In this issue an article by David L. Miles details the genesis of De Fuccio and Bailey's superhero concept and their unsuccessful attempt to sell the Owl as a comic strip. 

Every issue of GSM had plenty of convention coverage. In addition to the EC Fan Addict Con, there were reports on the New York Comic Art Convention, San Diego's Con and the first (and last?) American International Congress of Comics, which took place in New York and included a mix of European and American artists, organized by the National Cartoonists Society. 


Graphic Story World # 8, (December 1972). Kyle's editorial in this issue explained that the magazine would soon separate into two distinct publications. New features included "The Wonderworld Forum", which addressed comments from fans and pros on all aspects of comics, and the first - and last - column by prolific fan Tony Isabella, reporting on upcoming releases from Marvel, DC and Skywald. Recently hired to work as an editorial assistant for Marvel, Isabella had to bow out. He would go on to write and create features for Marvel (Captain America, Ghost Rider, Iron Fist), DC (Black Lightning) and other companies in the decades ahead.       

Issue number 9, now re-titled Wonderworld (August 1973), incorporated further changes. In his editorial Kyle explained that the magazine would henceforth consist of graphic stories (represented by "Penn and Chris", an adventure strip by Dan Spiegle and "The Victims", a French translated story) alongside the usual features and columns. Kyle noted that the magazine was selling well on newsstands; in itself surprising, since fanzines were almost exclusively bought through mail order subscriptions and the handful of stores that specialized in comics at the time. The move from a bi-monthly to quarterly schedule was announced, as was the upcoming publication of Graphic Story Quarterly, described as:

 "America's first professional magazine devoted to all aspects of the graphic story - comic books, newspaper strips, underground comix, the growing field of magazine strips, hardcover books and paperbound editions, the international graphic story, yesterday's comics world - and tomorrow's."   

This, in addition to a Graphic Novel by George Metzger, Beyond Time and Again, and another new title, Quest, "the world's first graphic story magazine for the mature reader.." 

Kyle's focus in Graphic Story World/Wonderworld had been expanding from issue to issue, starting out as a discussion on comic art content to inclusion of graphic stories.
His future plans pointed to new, extremely ambitious directions, and an argument could be made that he was overreaching by attempting to fit too many ingredients under one title. Perhaps these problems would have been resolved with time.
Unfortunately it is a question that will remain unanswered.

Wonderworld # 10 (November 1973) was the final issue. It included a variety of features, from Max Allan Collins' article on Mickey Spillane's comic book background to Mark Evanier's report on the 1973 New York Comic Art Convention, along with art and stories by Jack Davis, Dan Spiegle and unpublished work by master artist Alex Toth (some strips and features promised in the previous month's editorial were either truncated or failed to appear). The promise of future issues and new publications (Graphic Story Quarterly and Quest) was not to be realized, but Kyle did publish George Metzger's Beyond Time and Again, perhaps the first book of its kind to be labeled a "Graphic Novel", in 1976.

What went wrong? According to Kyle GSM/Wonderworld was selling well. In Bill Schelly's book, The Golden Age of Comics Fandom, Kyle gave his view of the magazine:

"It was deliberately somewhat over-serious in tone, as I - a little heavy-handedly, I think - tried to bring comics criticism into the literary mainstream. When my entire subscription list was destroyed in a flood, I discontinued publishing. Illness in my family made it too costly to begin again." 

This author would argue that Kyle's fanzine/magazine was far from ponderous, particularly before it grew to encompass graphic stories. A publication that distinguished itself, focusing on all aspects of comics - as the early issues did - alongside a separate publication for graphic stories might have worked out better. Nevertheless, Kyle's ambition is to be admired. He produced an intelligent magazine that was informative, attractive and diverse. Kyle left the world of fanzines and went into business as the owner of a bookstore in California. In 1983 Kyle commissioned Jack Kirby, an artist he greatly admired, to produce an autobiographical story. "Street Code" did not see publication, though, until 1990, when Kyle briefly revived Argosy magazine. The story appeared in its second issue.

Richard Kyle passed away on December 10, 2016 at the age of 86. His legacy lives on in the superior work he left behind.